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September 13, 2023+Nafees Alam
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STEM Needs More Women – and the Social Sciences Need More Men.

Education is a fundamental right that should be accessible and encouraged for everyone regardless of gender or socio-economic status. And yet, there remain significant gender disparities in the fields of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and social sciences. In order to address these disparities, higher education may need to get creative by incentivizing women in STEM and men in social sciences.

In the past, these conversations have almost exclusively centered around increasing the number of women in STEM, as they make up 34% of the STEM workforce and 35% of the STEM university student population. However, similar disparities exist for men in social sciences as they make up less than 40% of the field, with social work being a particularly skewed substratum as approximately 10% of the profession are men.

The solution may be to pull more men into social sciences, thereby making more space for women in STEM, and to pull more women into STEM, thereby making more space for men in social sciences.

The STEM fields have long been at the forefront of human progress and innovation. They have given rise to groundbreaking discoveries, revolutionary technologies, and transformative solutions to complex challenges. The call for greater gender diversity in STEM has gained momentum in recent years, driven by a growing recognition of the immense potential that a more inclusive workforce holds.

The field of social sciences encompasses a rich tapestry of disciplines that explore the complexities of human behavior, societies, cultures, and interactions. Despite the growing importance of diversity and inclusion, the representation of men in social sciences remains comparatively low as the number of men pursuing higher education continues in a downward trend.

Some suggest that the current gender disparity in STEM is not a reflection of aptitude, but rather a consequence of systemic biases and historical factors. However, research highlights that as societies become more gender egalitarian and wealthy, sex segregation in the workplace generally increases. When people have more options in the work they do, women are empowered to organize politically and economically, and barriers to education and the workplace are lower, women become more likely to choose fields where they can work primarily with other women instead of choosing better-paying male-dominated professions. This holds true across cultures and has been noted by sociologists for decades, most recently demonstrated in a study tracking hundreds of thousands of people worldwide.

"Research highlights that as societies become more gender egalitarian and wealthy, sex segregation in the workplace generally increases."

Studies also consistently find that the average woman is slightly more intelligent than the average man, and is also more likely to have characteristics that allow them to flourish in school. Women are more consistent in these categories, with variance being relatively low. Men are more likely to be extremely low or high-performing, and more likely to be developmentally disabled or geniuses. Overall, the differences between men and women in most aptitude measures are negligible with the average woman likely to be higher than the average man.

Nevertheless, there are significant differences in cognitive styles between men and women that are relevant for understanding some of the sex segregation we see in many fields. The best available research suggests that the causes of these disparities are complicated. Socialization and discrimination are certainly important roles but there are a myriad of other contributing factors including general preferences and tendencies among women that seem to cut across societies and cultures. The notion that no substantial differences exist between men and women that might explain the disparities seems to contradict research findings that men and women are importantly different in many respects, thus adding more gender diversity to these fields could change them in integral ways.

Fostering an environment that encourages more women to pursue STEM careers can help unlock a vast reservoir of untapped potential talent. Diverse perspectives enrich the creative process, fostering innovative thinking and multidimensional problem-solving. Women bring unique viewpoints, experiences, and approaches that can lead to more holistic solutions and breakthroughs in various scientific and technological endeavors. When young girls see successful women in STEM, they are more likely to believe that they, too, can excel in these fields. A lack of role models can discourage girls from pursuing their passions and talents in STEM. Increasing the visibility of accomplished women in STEM careers can inspire the next generation to dream big, breaking down stereotypes and challenging societal norms that have perpetuated the gender gap for decades.

"Fostering an environment that encourages more women to pursue STEM careers can help unlock a vast reservoir of untapped potential talent."

Just as women bring unique viewpoints to STEM fields, men can offer distinctive perspectives in social sciences. The involvement of men in these disciplines introduces a diversity of experiences and insights that enrich the research process. Different gender experiences can influence the questions asked, the methodologies chosen, and the interpretations of findings. A balanced representation of both genders ensures that research is well-rounded and reflects the complexities of the human condition. Men's participation in social sciences can also challenge existing stereotypes and biases that may exist within the field. The underrepresentation of men can perpetuate a skewed understanding of gender dynamics and roles within society. By including men in social sciences, we can foster a more nuanced exploration of issues related to masculinity, gender identity, and the intersectionality of various social constructs, thus leading to a more accurate portrayal of human experiences.

There is a societal focus on getting more women into historically male-dominated fields like STEM. However, the space that is male-dominated is finite, meaning that if more women begin entering these fields in larger numbers, competition will grow more intense and many men will be displaced, needing to pursue alternative lines of work. As more women pursue STEM degrees and STEM careers, this trend will likely be exacerbated and society will inevitably need to focus on getting more men into historically female-dominated fields like social sciences. If women are increasingly moving into historically male-dominated professions, men will increasingly need to move into historically female-dominated professions. Just as STEM could benefit from greater gender diversity, social sciences could also benefit from greater gender diversity, establishing a wide array of potential careers and role models for future generations of professionals to admire and emulate. Social sciences could also benefit from more men in the field as research shows that the more female-dominated a profession becomes, the more compensation begins to erode.

Just as the push for more women in STEM is grounded in gender equality principles, advocating for men in social sciences aligns with the same core values. A balanced representation of both genders is essential for a fair and equal society. Encouraging more men to participate in social sciences can not only challenge gender-based assumptions but also foster a greater sense of inclusion and shared responsibility for addressing societal challenges.

A diverse representation of both genders in social sciences can lead to a more well-rounded and comprehensive education for all students. Exposure to a variety of perspectives enhances critical thinking skills, empathy, and the ability to navigate complex social dynamics. It prepares individuals to engage with a wide range of societal issues and equips them to become informed and responsible global citizens.

The call for greater representation of women in STEM and men in social sciences is not about diminishing the contributions of the other or asserting one gender’s superiority over another. Incentivizing women in STEM and men in social sciences can create a pathway for increasing diversity and addressing underrepresentation due to societal attitudes, lack of role models, and biases in recruitment and promotion. Diversity is essential for innovation and progress, and a lack of diversity can lead to groupthink, biases, skewed social dynamics, and stagnation.

After years of promoting women in STEM without much acknowledgment of the lack of men in social sciences, we may have a solution that helps create more diversity in both: pulling more men into social sciences, thereby making more space for women in STEM, and pulling more women into STEM, thereby making more space for men in social sciences. Encouraging more women to pursue STEM fields and more men to pursue social sciences can help promote greater diversity in both fields and benefit society as a whole.

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