Heterodox Academy (HxA) is on a mission to improve education and research in universities by increasing open inquiry, viewpoint diversity, and constructive disagreement. Ideas are the currency of the academy, and advocates for change need the best ideas and evidence available in order to be effective.
HxA has been conducting its annual Campus Expression Survey (CES) to provide benchmarking data and insights on student viewpoint expression and to identify variables associated with expression on campus. Over the past four years we have demonstrated the urgency of the problem with, on average, nearly two-thirds of students reporting that they censor their views in the classroom on culturally controversial topics.
The 2022 HxA CES surveyed 1,564 full-time college students (ages 18 to 24) across the United States in November 2022. The sample was stratified by region, race, and gender. Our fourth year of data collection has yielded continued insights into the problem of campus expression by students. It also offers small signs of hope that viewpoint diversity and open inquiry may be improving from the student perspective.
Takeaway 1: Students’ Reluctance to Discuss Controversial Topics Remains High But Shows Signs of Improvement
Takeaway 2: Students’ Reluctance Is Associated Primarily with Fear of Negative Social Consequences from Peers
Takeaway 3: High Peer Interaction Is Associated with Greater Expression Among Students
Takeaway 4: Campus Culture Needs Continued Improvement to Foster Viewpoint Diversity
Your generosity supports our non-partisan efforts to advance the principles of open inquiry, viewpoint diversity, and constructive disagreement to improve higher education and academic research.