Heterodox Academy is a collection of scholars and researchers. We analyze trends in the academy based on available data; we offer research-based solutions. We aim to collect and make accessible all the extant research we can find that will help professors, policy makers, and administrators to understand and attain the benefits of viewpoint diversity. On this page we organize the various materials, especially blog posts our members have written, to summarize relevant research papers and areas of research.
Ideological Perspectives: Professors
- Professors moved left since 1990s, rest of country did not (Sam Abrams)
- The blue shift of the New England professorate (Sam Abrams)
- Why are there so few non-liberals in social psychology? A closer look (Bo Bennett)
- The institutionalization of ideology in sociology (Carl Blankston)
- New report on the political views of British Academics (Noah Carl)
- New study indicates existence of eight conservative social psychologists (Jonathan Haidt)
- Does the mandate for novel research explain the absence of conservatives? (Chris Martin)
- Revisiting whether conservative and libertarian professors are more productive (Chris Martin)
- The legal academy’s ideological uniformity (Sean Stevens)
- Langbert, Quain, & Klein: Faculty voter registration in economics, history, journalism, law, and psychology (Sean Stevens)
- Cardiff, C. and Klein D. Faculty Partisan Affiliations in All Disciplines: A Voter-Registration Study, Critical Review 17, 2005.
- Carl, Noah. LACKADEMIA Why Do Academics Lean Left?, Adam Smith Institute, 2017.
- Gross, N. (2013). Why are professors liberal and why do conservatives care? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Inbar, Y. & Lammers, J. (2012). Political diversity in social and personality psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (5), 496-503.
- Klein, D. B., & Stern, C. (2009). By the numbers: The ideological profile of professors. In R. Maranto, R. E. Redding, & F. M. Hess (Eds.), The Politically Correct University: Problems, scope, and reforms. Washington D.C.: The AEI Press.
- Langbert, M., Quain, A.J., & Klein, D.B. (2016). Faculty voter registration in economics, history, journalism, law, and psychology. Econ Journal Watch 13 (3), 422-451.
- Lindgren, J. (2016). Measuring Diversity: Law faculties in 1997 and 2013. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 39 (1), 89-151.
- Merritt, D. J. (1998). Research and teaching on law faculties: An empirical exploration. Chicago-Kent Law Review 73, 765-821.
- Phillips, J. C. (2016). Why are there so few conservatives and libertarians in legal academia? An empirical exploration of three hypotheses. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 39 (1), 153-207.
Ideological Perspectives: Students
- How Marcuse made today’s students less tolerant than their parents (April Kelly-Woessner)
- Parenting styles: Helicopters, paramedics, and bystanders (Chris Martin)
- Is one group of students more susceptible to their professors’ ideology? (Josh Sabey)
- Nothing to see here? (Jon Shields)
- Eagan, et al., Political Polarization on Campus at an All Time High, UCLA Higher Education Research Institute, 2017.
Microaggressions, Bias and Discrimination
- Microaggressions, macro debate (Musa Al-Ghrabi)
- What explains demographic gaps? Simpson’s paradox (Lee Jussim)
- Is stereotype threat overcooked, overstated, and oversold? (Lee Jussim)
- Police killings of blacks is not (mostly) prejudice (Lee Jussim)
- Are stereotypes accurate? Are scientific generalizations accurate? Are these questions the same? (Chris Martin)
- Sue D. W., Capodilupo C. M., Torino G. C., Bucceri J. M., Holder A., Nadal K. L., Esquilin M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62, 271–286.
- Lilienfeld, S.O. (2017). Microaggressions: Strong claims, inadequate evidence. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 1, 138-169.
Viewpoint Diversity on Campus
- Political diversity will improve social psychological science (Lee Jussim)
- Political diversity in social psychology – Our response to 33 critiques (Jarret Crawford)
- Duarte, J. L., Crawford, J. T., Stern, C., Haidt, J., Jussim, L., & Tetlock, P.E. (2015). Political diversity will improve social psychological science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X14000430
- Eagly, A. H. (2016). When passionate advocates meet research on diversity, does the honest broker stand a chance? Journal of Social Issues. doi: 10.1111/josi.12163
- Haidt, J. (2011, January). “The bright future of post-partisan social psychology.” Talk given at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. San Antonio, TX. Transcript.
- Janis, I.L. (1972). Victims of groupthink; a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.
- Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
- Putnam, R.D. (2007). E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-First Century. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30, 137-174.
- Redding, R. E. (2001). Sociopolitical diversity in psychology: The case for pluralism. American Psychologist, 56(3), 205-215.
Ideological Bias: Lay People
- Are conservatives really simple minded? (Luke Conway)
- Campus speaker disinvitations: Recent trends (Part 1 of 2) (Part 2 of 2) (Sean Stevens)
- Dogmatic intolerance on the left and right (Sean Stevens)
- Liberals, conservatives, and intolerance (Sean Stevens)
- The liberal and conservative experience across academic disciplines: An extension of Inbar and Lammers (Sean Stevens)
- Campus Speaker Disinvitations, FIRE via Heterodox Academy, 2017.
- Iyengar, S. and Westwood, S. Fear and Loathing Across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 59, No. 3, July 2015.
- Cohen, G.L. (2003). Party over policy: The dominating impact of group influence on political beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 (5), 808-822.
- Lord, C.G., Ross, L., & Lepper M.R. (1979). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (11), 2098-2109.
- Van Prooijen, J-W. & Krouwel, A.P.M. (2017). Extreme political beliefs predict dogmatic intolerance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8 (3), 292-300.
Ideological Bias: Academics
- Ideology Homophily in the 4th estate (Musa Al-Gharbi)
- Are Most Published Social Psychology Findings False? (Lee Jussim)
- Sacred Beliefs “R” Us (Daniel Klein)
- How ideology has hindered sociological insight, summarized (Chris Martin)
- The New Religion of Anti-Racism Can Turn Disagreement into Heresy (Chris Martin)
- Activism and the Academy: Lessons from the rise of ethnic studies (Fabio Rojas)
- A Social Science Without Sacred Values: Part I / Part II (Bo Winegard)
- Chilton, A. & Posner, E. (2015). An empirical study of political bias in legal scholarship. Journal of Legal Studies 44(2), 277-314.
- Jussim, L., Crawford, J.T., Anglin, S.M., Stevens, S. T., & Duarte, J.L. (2016). Interpretations and methods: Towards a more effectively self-correcting social psychology. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 66, 116-133.
- Jussim, L., Crawford, J.T., Stevens, S.T., Anglin, S.M., & Duarte, J.L. (2016). Can high moral purposes undermine scientific integrity? In J. Forgas, P. van Lange, & L. Jussim (Eds.), The Sydney Symposium on the Social Psychology of Morality.
- Jussim, L., Crawford, J.T., Anglin, S.M., & Stevens, S.T. (2015). The politics of social psychological science: Distortions in the psychology of intergroup relations. In P. Valdeso & J. Grahame (Eds.), The Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology Bridging Ideological Divides.
- Jussim, L., Crawford, J., Stevens, S.T., Anglin, S.M. (2015). Ideological bias in social psychological research. In J. Forgas, K. Fiedler, & B. Crano (Eds.), Social Psychology and Politics.
International: What is going on in countries around the world?
History of the Academy
- Intersectionality is a Political Football: Here’s why it doesn’t have to be (Chris Martin)
- The Birth of the Research University (Chris Martin)
- The Most Dangerous Creep on Campus (Jonathan Haidt)
- How the 1960s Changed Anthropology (Chris Martin)
- Centrism and Sociology (Chris Martin)
- The amazing 1969 prophecy that racial preferences would cause the exact grievances of protesters today (Jonathan Haidt)
- Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The modern denial of human nature. New York, NY: Penguin Books.